This course is designed for non-science majors who seek an understanding of the concepts of chemistry. Historical foundations of chemistry, applications to society and daily life, controversies of contemporary concern and current research topics are explored. Inquiry-based laboratory experiments will illustrate chemical principles. 3 hrs. lecture, 2 hrs. lab/wk.
Associated Costs: These are additional (out-of-pocket) expense considerations that students should expect in addition to the course tuition, fees, and textbooks. $60.
Refer to the instructor's course syllabus for details about any supplies that may be required.
Upon successful completion of this course, the student should be able to:
- Illustrate how chemistry is a scientific way of learning about the behavior of matter.
- Explain and contrast various atomic theories of matter.
- Explain reactions involving atomic nuclei and uses of nuclear reactions.
- Describe the formation of chemical bonds.
- Describe chemical compounds and reactions qualitatively with names and formulas as well as quantitatively.
- Classify characteristics of substances and chemical formulas as acid or base and write acid-base reactions.
- Explain oxidation and reduction reactions and their application in electrochemical cells and biological processes.
- Explain the chemical context of selected topics and controversies that currently relate to society.
- Describe the uniqueness and importance of the chemistry of polymers.
- Explain the composition of and regular changes in Earth's atmosphere.
- Describe the properties and uses of water.
- Describe sources and uses of energy.
Content Outline and Competencies:
I. Scientific Method of Learning A. Investigate natural phenomena using scientific methodology, including: 1. Make observation 2. Construct hypotheses 3. State laws 4. Articulate theories 5. Develop models B. Summarize information about risks and benefits relative to a scientific issue and compare risks and benefits. C. Use the characteristics of critical thinking to analyze scientific claims, including: 1. Falsifiability 2. Logic 3. Replicability 4. Sufficiency II. Atomic Theories of Matter A. Describe the atomic theories of: 1. Democritus 2. Lavoisier 3. Proust 4. Dalton B. List the four postulates of Dalton's atomic theory. C. Explain the laws of: 1. Conservation of mass 2. Definite proportions 3. Multiple proportions D. Locate the fundamental parts of an atom. E. Describe the scientific process leading to the modern understanding of the atom, including experiments and/or theories of: 1. John Dalton 2. J. J. Thomson 3. Eugene Goldstein 4. Robert Millikan 5. Ernest Rutherford 6. Niels Bohr F. Use the periodic table to determine the number of protons and electrons in an atom of any element. G. Describe similarities and differences between the Bohr model of the atom and the quantum mechanical model. H. Identify the charge and relative masses of the proton, the neutron and the electron. I. List similarities or differences between elements in families and periods in the modern periodic table. III. Atomic Nuclei and Nuclear Reactions A. Calculate the number of neutrons, the number of protons or the nucleon number in an atom, given any two of these. B. Supply the missing nuclide in any nuclear reaction. C. Give the symbols and general characteristics (penetration and body damaging powers) for: 1. Alpha radiation 2. Beta radiation 3. Gamma radiation D. Identify nuclides that are isotopes. E. Describe the relative mass and charge of subatomic particles, including: 1. Protons 2. Neutrons 3. Electrons 4. Alpha particles 5. Beta particles 6. Gamma rays F. Distinguish between nuclear fission and fusion G. Given the fraction decrease in activity and the half-life of the isotope undergoing radioactive decay, calculate the age of an artifact. H. List the principal sources of radiation. I. Describe the use of radioisotopes in medicine. 1. List commonly used radioisotopes. 2. Match the isotopes with procedures in which they are used. J. Explain what is meant by "nuclear winter." IV. Chemical Bonds A. Distinguish between compounds with different types of chemical bonds. 1. Ionic bonds 2. Polar covalent bonds 3. Nonpolar covalent bonds B. Calculate simple combining ratios of atoms. C. Draw electrons dot symbols for the first 20 elements in the periodic table. D. Given the molecular formula, construct structural formulas for simple covalent compounds. E. Using the periodic table, determine the number of bonds a nonmetal element will form. F. Predict the shape of simple molecules using the VSEPR theory. G. Describe transfer of electrons between atoms, which forms ions bonds. H. Describe the sharing of electrons between atoms, which forms covalent bonds. I. Explain the polarity of covalent bonds using electronegativity differences. J. Explain the relationship between valence electrons and molecular shape using VSEPR theory. K. Describe situations where dipole forces, hydrogen bonds and dispersion forces are important. V. Chemical Compounds, Formulas and Reactions A. Given positive and negative ions, write formulas and names for ionic compounds. B. Given the name of a covalent compound, write the name. C. Given a formula, convert between mass and number of moles of the substance. D. Balance simple chemical equations. E. Calculate mole ratios of reactants and products in a balanced chemical equation. VI. Acids and Bases A. Describe the properties of acids and bases. B. Match pH values and acid or base character. C. Describe acid-base chemistry as it applies to situations such as: 1. Acid rain 2. Antacids VII. Oxidation and Reduction Reactions A. Identify substances that are oxidized or reduced. B. List applications of: 1. Reducing agents 2. Oxidizing agents C. Describe oxidation and reduction in: 1. Electrochemical cells 2. Batteries 3. Corrosion D. Describe the role of oxidation and reduction in biological processes. Optional Content Outline and Competencies VIII. Polymers A. Match a given monomer with the polymer produced from it. B. Describe the general types of polymers, including: 1. Addition 2. Condensation 3. Cross linked C. List advantages and problems associated with use of plastics. IX. Air A. Describe the layers of the atmosphere and their chemical composition. B. Describe the nitrogen and oxygen cycles. X. Water A. Describe the properties of water. B. Sketch the water cycle. C. Describe the sources and types of water contamination. XI. Energy A. Identify and use the units and terms of energy. B. State the first and second laws of thermodynamics. C. Give examples of effects of the laws of thermodynamics. D. List sources of energy, including: 1. Fossil fuels 2. Nuclear 3. Solar 4. Hydroelectric E. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of each energy source. LAB: I. Safety and Measurements A. Work safely and effectively in performing laboratory experiments. B. Follow written directions accurately. C. Perform techniques used in laboratory experiments. D. Acquire data using balances and volumetric equipment. E. Estimate and verify the mass of an object. F. Estimate and verify the length of an object. G. Calculate the average of a series of data to the correct number of significant figures. H. Write data and measurements to the correct number of significant figures. II. Periodic Table A. Group elements that have similar chemical properties. B. Separate groups of elements by observing variations in chemical behavior. C. Using experimental data and values from reference sources, verify the organization of the modern periodic table. III. Separation of a Mixture A. Using physical properties, separate chemicals from a mixture. B. Write a laboratory report explaining procedures. IV. Density A. Calculate the density of a regular shaped object. B. Calculate the density of an irregular shaped object. V. Radioactivity A. Test the shielding effect of a variety of materials against alpha and beta radiation. B. Test the effect of distance from a radioactive source. C. Determine the half life of a radioactive isotope. VI. Models A. Use model kits to construct various shapes of molecules and ions. VII. The Nitrogen Cycle in an Aquarium A. Determine the concentration of ammonia in a sample of aquarium water. B. Determine the concentration of nitrite in a sample of aquarium water. C. Determine the concentration of nitrate in a sample of aquarium water. D. Graph the concentrations of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate over time. VIII. Water Hardness A. Analyze the hardness of water samples using qualitative procedures. B. Soften hard water using the following processes: 1. Heating 2. Neutralization 3. Ion exchanges 4. Washing soda 5. Chelating agents IX. Chemical Reactions A. Perform chemical reactions. B. Observe and record changes that occur in chemical reactions. C. Write balanced equations for chemical reactions. D. Carry out chemical reactions ot test consumer products for certain ions. E. Identify an unknown substance using chemical tests. X. Antacids A. Quantitatively titrate acid with base. B. Neutralize a commercial antacid. C. Determine the efficacy of antacids. XI. Redox/Stain Removal A. Carry out a number of chemical reactions that involve the transfer of electrons. 1. Write accurate observations of the reactions. 2. List oxidizing agents in order of strength. B. Investigate use of household cleansers as oxidizing agents. 1. Test a variety of stains with several oxidizing agents. 2. Evaluate the stain-removing efficiency of the oxidizing agents. XII. Polymers A. Identify different characteristics of polymers. B. Match common products with the polymers from which they are made. C. Synthesize a polymer. XIII. Absorption of Ultra Violet Light by Caffeine A. Determine the concentration of a solution. B. Measure the absorbance of a caffeine solution using a UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. C. Determine the concentration of an unknown caffeine solution using absorbance and Beer's Law.
Method of Evaluation and Competencies:
Evaluation of student mastery of course competencies will be accomplished using the following methods:
A minimum of five examinations 50% of grade Final 15% of grade Assignments/Quizzes/Homework 15% of grade Laboratory 20% of grade 100% of grade Grading Scale: A = 90% - 100% B = 80% - 89% C = 70% - 79% D = 60% - 69% F = 0% - 59%
- Computer literacy: Students will need basic word processing and Internet searching skills for the completion of some papers, exercises and projects.
- Safety: Students entering this class should be aware that they may be in close contact with potentially hazardous chemicals and equipment. The students should assume responsibility in conducting themselves in a manner to minimize such hazards.
- Safety: Chemical hazards or use of equipment dictate that goggles, shoes and protective covering will be worn whenever chemicals or equipment are used.
- Consumption of food, beverages or tobacco is strictly prohibited and will not be tolerated.
If you are a student with a disability, and if you will be requesting accommodations, it is your responsibility to contact Access Services. Access Services will recommend any appropriate accommodations to your professor and his/her director. The professor and director will identify for you which accommodations will be arranged.
JCCC provides a range of services to allow persons with disabilities to participate in educational programs and activities. If you desire support services, contact the office of Access Services for Students With Disabilities (913) 469-8500, ext. 3521 or TDD (913) 469-3885. The Access Services office is located in the Success Center on the second floor of the Student Center.